Praise to Allah who never ceases being know, able. May Allah bless our liegelord
Muhammad, whom He sent to humankind as a bearer of good tidings and a warner, and
upon his folk, Companions, and many salutations.
To commence: The books of the nomenclature of ḥadith specialists are many and were
expanded and condensed. One of my brothers asked that I summarize for them what is
important. I responded to his request seeking to be counted among those who trod the
[scholarly] paths. So I say:
The paths of a report (khabar) are either:
1. without specific number
2. more than two paths
3. two paths
4. one path
• The first is the mass–transmitted report (mutawātir), and conveys sure knowledge (‘ilm
yaqīnī) when its conditions are met.
• The second is the well–known report (mashhūr) and it is also called the well–circulated
report (mustafīḥ) according to one opinion.
• The third is the rare report (‘azīz). It is not the [minimal] condition for authenticity,
contrary to whoever claimed it.
• The fourth is the uncommon report (gharīb).
All of them except for the first are solitary reports (āḥād). They [=these reports]
encompass the accepted and the rejected since using them as evidence hinges on
investigating the status of the reporters, contrary to the first category. Yet they might
Book author : Ibn Hajar AlAsqalani
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